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There are also many other monuments which stand to this day, in different degrees of dilapidation, to speak of the wealth and prosperity of the empire of Vijayanagar. 57 A very important check on royal authority was the Royal Council. They recruited directly for the army, gathered feudal levies and effected some reforms in their army organisation on the lines of the Muhammadans. It was a House, membership in which gave dignity and honour to one who held it, in the same way as membership in the Privy Council in England gives great dignity to one at the present day. It was on such a principle traditionally followed that the Astapradhdn Council of Sivaji was formed. From the inscriptions of the period we can infer that the following were some of the most important officers of the Vijayanagar State, who served as the ministers of the king. The most striking of the monuments are the romantic ruins of Hampi now “ an open air museum of Hindu monuments ”, which recall to mind the glories of what was once a great and flourishing city. There are many records which praise not only the king but also the local influential people for this remission . It is true that what was required in the Vijayanagar period was a strong and efficient army to arrest the Muhammadan aggressions and put down the turbulent feudal vassals, and hence the Vijayanagar kings were keen on improving the military organisation in the empire ; and they succeeded in that to a large extent. 67 But its size should have been unwieldy for all practical pur- poses ; nor could there have been in it men qualified to advise the king on matters of state. But it was the practice both in ancient and in mediaeval Hindu governments to fix it somewhere about eight or ten. Military Organisation : Warfare and Diplomacy Section L Strength . Control of the Provincial Organisations ## 202 X CONTENTS Chapter Page VII.

The Gupta empire was reared into existence by kings like Samudragupta and Candragupta II, but crumbled under a succession of weak rulers. It was founded and strengthened by the enthusiastic brothers Harihara and Bukka, and its administration was stabilised successively by Deva Raya II, Saluva Narasimha and Krsnadeva Raya. The Vijaya- nagar kings in common with the ancient Hindu kings had their coronations duly performed. The occasion was one of mirth and joy and the kings then made large grants to temples and Brahmans. In ancient India the reigning sovereigns gener- ally nominated their heirs-apparent and bequeathed the empire to them. That was due perhaps to the fact that the reigning kings feared that suc- cession to the throne would be disputed after their death. 11 During the period of his training the Yuvardja was placed under the tutelage of able teachers who taught him the Sastras , the knowledge of which was necessary for a king. According to Nuniz, Kr§nadeva Raya abdicated and enthroned his son Tirumala as the king of Vijayanagar (not as Yuvardja) and Krsna Raya himself became his son’s Prime Minister. On the strength of these facts, Ven- kayya and Krishna Sastri are inclined to think that Vijaya Raya and Deva Raya II were Co-regents respectively under their fathers. The text runs as follows : Srimanu Mqhamandal - esvaran .

The Asiatic Society 1, Park S treat, Calcutta-700 016 Book is to be returned on the Date Last Stamped Date Voucher No, Madras University Historical Series ■ — No.